Premature ovarian failure (POF) is an ovarian defect that is characterised by the cessation of ovarian function and premature ovarian follicle depletion before 40 years of age; it is also known as premature menopause. This condition may cause femaleinfertility due to an ovulation, hypoestrogenism, sex steroid deciencies and elevated gonadotropins in women less than 40 years of age.According to pathogenesis, there are two types of POF: one has a limited number of remaining follicles, and the other
has an abundant number of follicles with maturation defects.The aetiology of POF is complex.Genetic, immumological and chemotherapy are the major reasons for POF. at are capable of generating oocytes have been undertaken in mice. This outcome brings some hopefor new POF treatments. Stem cells derived from different sources may have some effect on the rescue of ovary function, such as recovering ovary sex hormone function, reducing apoptosis of GCs, and increasing the number of follicles. These transplanted stem cells could reside in the ovarian tissue and rescue ovarian function. Stem cell therapy are of different types in treating POF
1. Mesenchymal stem cells in stem cell therapy of premature ovarian failure - the follicle and ovulation numbers significantly increase after these stem cells are transplanted.Many growth factors such as VEGF, transforming growth factor-β and placentagrowth factor can be secreted by ADSCs, which are important for both follicle and oocyte growth.
2. Cells derived from human amniotic fluid in premature ovarian failure stem cell therapy
3. Bone marrow-derived cells in premature ovarian failure stem cell therapy - Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used to rescue ovarian function and fertility in some reproductive-age women after long-term chemotherapy use.
Although these PSCs have different mechanisms in repairing damaged ovarian tissue associated with POF, they have a common treatment goal in re-establishing normal hormonal function, increasing follicle and ovulation number and reducing GC apoptosis. There are many prospects for stem cell therapy mechanisms associated with POF.