Procedure for test tube baby
In an IVF-ET or test tube baby the female spouse is given medication to bring about super ovulation (produce number of eggs). There are different protocols called as “long or down – regulation” protocol, short or ultra short protocol where GnRHa (agonist) are used, or Antagonist protocol (GnRH ant). The type of protocol to be used depends on number of criteria like age, hormonal values, ovarian reserve etc of the females. The expert clinician (fertility specialist) can decide the most suitable protocol for an individual then from Day 2 or Day 3 of the menstrual cycle gondotropins injections are given to stimulate the ovaries to produce more number of eggs. These eggs when near to maturity prior to ovulation are triggered with hCG injection and collected carefully in the IVF lab (specially designed lab). The clinician collects the follicular fluid from the ovaries using a needle with help of ultrasound transviganally and the embryologists screens the follicular fluid isolates the eggs, washed prior to placing them in an instrument called as 5% CO2 incubator at 370 C. This incubator mimics the uterine environment. Specialized, highly nutrient fluid called as media is used to nourish the human gametes. The husband produces an semen ejaculate which is processed and best spermatozoon are chosen (isolated from the entire ejaculate) to fertilize the eggs retrieved. Now fertilization can either be done conventionally wherein the spermatozoa thus prepared, at diluted concentration are added to eggs in culture and left to fertilize on their own. Otherwise if there are problems either with spermatozoa or eggs the embryologist selects the best spermatozoa with motility and morphology and injects this single spermatozoon into the egg with help of injecting and holding needles. This process is known as ICSI. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (more commonly pronounced as “Iksee”). This procedure enhances, ensures fertilization rates. The fertilized egg called as “pronucleus” then cleaves to form embryos.
After 3 to 5 days of culture these human embryos are carefully transferred to the womb of the female spouse in anticipation of a successful pregnancy.
Luteal support in form of hormonal support is provided to aid implantation of embryo and culminate into pregnancy.
This is “test tube baby” of IVF procedure in a nut shell.
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