Male Reproductive System includes two testes, a network of ducts, the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland and the penis. Sperms are produced in testis and ejaculated through penis. From the production to the delivery the track is very long – In short the pathway for sperms is from
Seminiferous Tubules straight tubules Rete testis efferent ductules Epididymis Vas deferens urethra. There can be blockage at any level and few of them can be treated surgically. Few disorders of male reproductive system which can be treated surgically are as follows.
A. Disorders of the Scrotum, Testicles, Epididymis and Ejaculatory duct.
|Testicular trauma & Torsion–||–Can occur due to mild injury to the testicles. Testicles torsion,|
when one of the testicles twists around.
–Surgery can untwist the cord and save the testicle
|Varicocele||–Abnormal dilated testicular veins of the scrotum.|
|Hydrocele||–It occurs when fluid collects in the membranes surrounding the tests|
–Surgery can correct the condition
|Inguinal hernia||–when a portion of the intestines pushes through an abdominal opening or weakening of the abdominal wall and into the groin or scrotum, it is known as inguinal hernia. Hernia may look like a bulge or swelling in the groin area.|
–Hernia can be corrected through surgery and as Vas pass through
inguinal canal, repair of hernia will help in sperm quality and quantity.
|Repositioning of undescended testis||–Testis does not descend and settle in scrotum, it remains in the inguinal canal, Testis can be brought back to scrotal sac in early childhood [5-7 years].|
– For adults surgery is helpful only to prevent testicular cancer it will not be useful for reproduction.
|Vas Deferens or|
|–It can be due to infection or traumatic injury|
–~5% vasectomized men undergo this surgery to restore sperm
|Ejaculatory duct obstruction||–Pathology is usually blockage of the ducts within the Prostate by stones, cysts or scar tissue.|
B. Disorders in the Penis: Correction of penile deformities
C. Anejaculation – absence of ejaculation
D. Sperm Extraction Procedures
When there is sperm production in the testis but unable to enter into ejaculatory system, sperm has to be recovered from vas, epididymis or testis, depending upon the location of extraction. Various techniques has been developed TESA, PESA, MESA etc . This sperm can be used for IVF-ICSI.
Some of the structural abnormalities of male reproductive tract can be corrected with surgery. To treat specific medical condition or to enhance sperm production medical therapy is applicable.
[Absence of Ejaculation]
|Psychological Situational or occasional|
use of vibrator
[Electrical stimulus is given to ejaculate]
Facility at our center
- History and Physical examination
- Hormone test
- Semen analysis with centrifuged pallet
- Testis biopsy and fine needle aspiration to determine sperm production within testis
- Genitic testing and conseling services for these men who has genetic reason for azoospermia
|Men in whom there is a blockage in the Epididymis very close to where it connects toTestis.|
It can occur either from prior surgery, infection
|Testis tissue is specially treated in the laboratory to separate sperms.|
Sperms are injected in to an egg through ICSI
Vas Deferens or Epididymal blockage
Reproductive tract of men is a basically one long tube
Cause for blockage
Facility with us
|Injury to the genital tract due to STD Vasectomy Incurred during other surgicalProcedure||vasectomy reversal Vasovasostomy Epididymostomy||We provide all the surgical procedures mentioned above|
Ejaculatory Duct obstruction
Cause for obstruction
Facility with us
|Result of surgical scarring during vasectomy procedure cancerous tumors cysts that grow in the prostate||surgery may restore the ejaculation of semen||We do provide this surgical procedure|
[Abnormal dilated testicular veins of the scrotum]
Facility at our center:
- ultrasound technique to diagnose varicocele
- surgical treatment like laparoscopy and incisional techniques – “come and go” basis
- Laparoscopic varicocelectomy or conventional technique
- Non-surgical treatment options – X-ray immobilization