What is Infertility?

If a couple below age 35 cannot conceive within one year of regular intercourse or 6 months in case of above 35 years is called infertility

When to approach?

There will not be physical disability like other diseases, a couple will complain only that since so and so time they are trying and could not conceive. On physical examination or by listening complaints doctors cannot diagnose. So by conducting certain tests on both partners, doctors can come to a final diagnosis.

What are the reasons for low fertility?

There could be a problem in either female or male or sometimes both Female subfertility reasons

  • ovulation failure
  1. stress
  2. pcos ( altered FSH: LH Ratio ) peripheral insulin resistance
  3. Obesity
  4. Hypo or Hyper Thyrodism
  • Pituitary failure
  1. Low or high FSH / LH levels
  • Ovarian Failure
  1. Primary or Secondary
  2. Uterine Problems
  3. Congenital ( comes by birth )
  4. Congenital absence of uterus
  5. Unicornuate bi-cornuate
  6. Septate uterus ( by birth ) i.e defects in a size of a shape
  • Acquired uterine problems
  1. Fibroids
  2. Adenomyosis ( menstrual blood collection inside uterine muscular wall )
  3. Polyps ( growth )in the endometrium ( inner wall of uterine)
  4. Infections in the endometrium
  5. Thinning or thickening of the endometrium
  • fallopian tubal problem
  1. Infections and adhesions of uterine tubes and alteration in tube ovarian relationship. An egg cannot enter uterine tube due to thin
  • vaginal problems
  1. Any infection in the vagina, changes vaginal PH, where sperm cannot survive, so sometimes there may be antibodies to sperm. By anti-sperm antibodies are there sperm cannot move.
  • stress
  1. It is one of the important reason for most of the disease including infertility.
  • Nutritional deficiency
  1. Protiens, vitamins and minerals are necessary for successful pregnancy.


  1. Low sperm parameters ( count, motility, size and shape defects )
  2. Lifestyle problems
  3. Stress, traveling, lack of times by food, exposure to chemicals or temperature


  1. Orchitis ( mumps, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, etc) infection in testis
  2. Infection to the epididymis( collection tubules )
  3. infection in seminal vesicle ( sucrose energy source to sperm )
  4. prostate ( supply alkaline PH medicine to sperm )

2. Varicocele

Excessive veins surroundings testis is called varicocele. It increases the testicular temperature so that sperm production or usually gets affected.

3. Hydrocele

Collection of fluid around testis due to infections

4. General health problems

  1. Diabetes, Hypertension / Hypo thyroiditis
  2. Use of Medicines for other health issues

5. Genetic

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities  chromosome microdeletions
  2. Azoospermia
  3. Primary testicular failure ( very small testis or testis in the groin)
  4. Pituitary failure – low FSH, LH levels.
  5. Obstruction for transport of sperms due to infections
  6. Congenital absence of vos difference
  7. Vasectomy ( family planning operations )


  1. General Blood Profile
  2. HSG ( X-ray of uterus and tubes )
  3. PCT – post-coital tube and anti-sperm antibody test
  4. Hormones – FSH, LH AMH, Insulin FT3, FT4, TSH prolactin
  5. Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy
  6. In case of repeated abortion – TORCH thrombophilia panel NK cells, phospholipid profile
  7. Chromosomal analysis ANA, ATA, TPO


  1. General blood profile Hormone profile
  2. FSH, LH, TSH, FT3, FT4 prolactin, testosterone ( free and total )
  3. Scrotal scanning for varicocele
  4. Rectal scanning for seminal vesicle syst and prostate
  5. Chromosomal analysis for azoo spermine
  6. Testicular biopsy
  7. Epidydimal sperm aspiration


Stage 1: History – physical examination – investigation – diagnosis

Treatments: Only medicine – to produce eggs –  oral medicines or injections are added

Emergency Call

In case of urgent, feel free to ask questions.